Wisdom Exercise #1

It appears that nature has strived from the beginning to become more aware. Humans have an apparently unquenchable hunger to become more aware.

            Carl Jung gives a marvelous insight into this deep feature of human nature, and how awareness makes the difference between existence and not existing:

From a low hill in the Athi plains of East Africa I once watched the vast herds of wild animals grazing in soundless stillness, as they had done from time immemorial, touched only by the breath of a primeval world. I felt then as if I were the first man, the first creature, to know that all this is. The entire world around me was still in a primeval state; it did not know that it was. And then, in that one moment in which I came to know, the world sprang into being; without that moment it would never have been. All nature seeks this goal and finds it fulfilled in man.[1]

How often we get caught up in the events of the moment and live no differently than one of the vast herds. Wisdom is always urging us to wake up and see. And when we do, we are no longer trapped eternally in a single dimension, or a single moment of time. What a momentous experience for Jung. By articulating it, he makes it possible for all of us to experience the same remarkable realization. It may take a while for you and me to feel it; but this is one of the paradigmatic understandings, the prajñā, that every wise person has.

            Let’s put our mirror neurons to work here, using this example. Go to the place within where you ‘get it’, where you arrive at the perspective Jung felt: a world void of self-consciousness, which springs into being when a mind realizes, “How remarkable. How strange!” An entirely new dimension of experience then opens that did not exist the moment before.

            This is not an insight that is likely to get lost in the rush of things that have to be done, or in getting caught up in the activity of the moment, forgetting how astonishing it is to be here.

[1] Carl G. Jung, 1968. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, 2nd ed. Volume 9, pt. 1 of the Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Trans. by R. F. C. Hull. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 95f., ¶177.

Time To Set Your Worldview Ahead

World Savings Time begins as soon as you set your mind ahead to Holistic Worldview Time from Western Mechanistic Time. Really should have been done long ago, before we ended up with an 18th century worldview in a 21st century world.

            This old worldview, claiming that reality consists of nothing more than matter and physical forces, which are senseless, valueless, purposeless; and that the fundamental units are atomistic, separate and individual, worked just fine – in the eighteenth century. With a global population of no more than 1 billion, almost all power limited to human and animal muscle, and a global economy about 1.1% of what it is today.[1]

            But in a world of almost 8 billion, with the power to change the climate and end life on the planet, and a global consumer economy of over $100 trillion dollars, it doesn’t work so well.

            And as time goes by, this antique model, which has formed the basis of our current political structures, law, economics, medicine, education, what we value, and the way we interact with each other, will never work any better than it does today.

            This mechanistic model of the world is to a large extent responsible for contemporary alienation, nihilism or lack of meaning, lack of community, increase in drug addiction, suicide rates, and depression. Complaints against its anti-humanism have been made, loud and long, since it began. They called it “the counter-culture” back in the 1960s. The objections made no difference to the dominance of metaphysical materialism over cultural forms and individual worldviews. Its revolutionary results and its benefits were undeniable.

            But now, as crises in the natural world and in human maladies worsen incessantly,  we learn with every passing day how the world is more tightly interconnected, and that even the king of sciences, physics, does not fit into the old materialist mode. And very recently, something new has happened. There are well-articulated and convincing alternatives to the Modern worldview! From environmentalism to systems theory, the writings of scientists and psychologists such as Rupert Sheldrake and Donald D. Hoffman, as well as philosophers of panpsychism, science itself is beginning to move on. It is time we all did. The old worldview is dead. Hail the new worldview – holism!

            “Fundamentally,” investigative journalist extraordinaire Naomi Klein writes in This Changes Everything (p. 462), her report on the response to climate disruption, “the task is to articulate… an alternative worldview to rival the one at the heart of the ecological crisis – embedded in interdependence rather than hyper-individualism, reciprocity rather than dominance, and cooperation rather than hierarchy.”

            That’s what we aim to do here, along with providing a simple method to overcome compulsive thought and attain direct, unmediated, intuitive perception of the world. This intuitive insight supplies the 20-20 vision to view that worldview right. Ultimately, that worldview will triumph that can inspire and arouse the greatest energy in humans. The coming years will tell whether this will be meaningless materialism or holism.

            We are grateful that you are here. Please consider us one of your positive resources.

Richard Hawley Trowbridge, Ph.D.
Editor, flourishingearth.org

[1] Maddison, Angus. 2001. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective.  The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Paris, France, page 261.

The Wisdom of The Flourishing Earth

When we perceive the world without the filter of thought, we realize that it is thought that has made the world that humans have come to believe is reality plain and simple. But it is not reality plain and simple, it is the world that thought has created. When we have learned to perceive the world without the filter of thought, we perceive the world as  it is – or at least as well as embodied consciousness can perceive the world. To see things the way they are, free of the delusions of the mind, is wisdom.

The notion of wisdom, like all concepts, has evolved throughout the history of written accounts. The key insight, as the concept developed in the Axial Age[1], appears to be recognition of the possibility of gaining knowledge beyond the ken of the many, “hoi polloi”, in regard to reality. Attainable through special gift of the gods, initiation, or personal self-cultivation, this insight turned the potential, unaware human into one who has attained knowledge of ultimate reality.

         In the West, in the fourth century BCE, Aristotle clearly distinguished practical wisdom (phronesis, prudentia) from wisdom proper (sophia, sapientia). The  former indicates skilled behavior in the social, material world. The  latter is the insight that the social-material world is a partial and crude version of complete reality. Humans have both  a material nature, which is subject to the limitations that result from identifying with this lower nature, or from being unable to escape its control; and an essential nature that is prior to the material nature, as an inner potential. This central, divine core, with which all humans are endowed, must be discovered by each of us, as classically explained in Plato’s parable of The Cave, in which people are limited to viewing a world of illusion, until one escapes the cave to discover reality. Or recalled, as in The Hymn of the Pearl, which relates the story of a prince sent to Egypt to retrieve a pearl guarded by a dragon. Once arrived in Egypt the youth is captivated by its delights and forgets his mission. Finally, he receives a letter from the king reminding him of his true nature and the treasure he was sent to retrieve.

         It is knowing oneself in this sense that is complete wisdom – prajñā, sophia, sapientia. This requires no doctrinal commitments. It is enough to realize that reality may be different from what we, and the great mass of people, believe it is.

         This is the wisdom of The Wisdom Page. We will explore this feature of wisdom here, and strive together to escape the illusion created by being consciousness in a material body – that is, assuming that we are basically material beings, because the body’s needs are so powerful and the body itself appears to be so undeniably our fundamental reality.

         Central to this effort is a simple method by which people can themselves approach (at least) this wisdom, called self-control of the mind – or, the zone game. In this activity, we learn to pay attention to what the mind is doing throughout the day. We become aware of our default mental mode, that is, what the mind is doing when we are not engaged in any activity. We learn to end compulsive thinking (which includes, in addition to internal speech, daydreamy fantasy and emotional scenarios). This is replaced by pure perception: awareness without being turned into words or emotions. This direct perception is called the zone.

         By becoming adept in the zone game – living as an athlete who is performing at hir peak, in the zone – we perceive ourselves and the world without interpreting reality through a filter of words, concepts, miseducation, and the distortions of the imperfect exterior senses.

         A person can play the zone game simply for the joy of accomplishing something valuable and challenging: ending compulsive thinking and attaining a mind that is free. For if we cannot control the mind, we are controlled by the mind: by its assumptions and thoughts, desires and fears. Here’s how to play in twenty-four words: Take one thought-free breath. Not necessarily perfectly thought-free, just good enough. Then continue. As you create more space in the mind, observe what appears.

         Learning self-control of the mind, and finding out what appears in a quiet, attentive mind, is natural human development, no different from learning to walk on two legs, to use symbolic language, or to make tools. It has taken longer to accomplish this developmental task because it is more difficult and not as obvious to the physical senses as the others.

         By taking this “longest stride of soul that humans every took” we step beyond the Axial Age. This experience of a new level of consciousness, and attaining a radically different, holistic identity is the greatest possible adventure for humans. We hope you will take the voyage with the Flourishing Earth.

[1] A period that lasted from about 800-200BCE. “Big questions that were specifically psychological in nature emerged: ‘Who am I?’ and ‘Why are people different?’ Perhaps as a consequence of this questioning, a new generation of wisdom teachings emerged across the four geographic areas affected. In India, new Hindu doctrine included a greater degree of reflection and analysis. Buddhism and Jainism both emerged, similarly self-reflective and analytical. China saw Confucianism, Taoism, and the “Hundred Schools.” Iran saw Zorastrianism. In the Middle East, Judaism coalesced, and changed from its non-reflective earliest writings, to a more human-focused perspective epitomized by the later books of the Hebrew Bible and by Rabbinic Judaism. Greek philosophy explored the human mind and argued for self-knowledge.” John D. Mayer, May 25, 2009, The Significance of the Axial Age (the Great Transformation).

Dec 16, 2020

A Flourishing Earth

A worldview is a system of beliefs and assumptions about the nature of the world and reality. The dominant world-view in a society shapes what appears to be the self-evident reality that is unquestioned because it is the belief of almost all people, particularly the authoritative voices of society.

           But there is a problem with the currently dominant worldview. Based on the assumptions that only material things and physical forces are real, and that humans are fundamentally separate individuals who should be allowed to follow personal interests without accounting for the effects on others, the dominant Modern worldview has encouraged the exploitation of nature and the disregard of values other than economic. Climate change and the devastation of the natural world are some of the results.

            And there is another problem with the Modern scientific worldview: it has no place for values or for the meaning of existence. Such matters are unscientific and are left to personal choice. In practice, meaning and values are neglected – very little news or advertising space is given them in the media – and they are considered no more important than anything else that is not scientific and has no economic value. Thus modern society is predominantly nihilistic and basically unconcerned with community and relationships, despite lip service to the contrary.

            In its assumption of basic separateness, and its disregard for meaning and values, the Modern worldview is incorrect and has led to destructive consequences. As long as the world-view is not changed, laws and regulations will not be effective in halting the march to destruction. Nor will there be a vision that will inspire people to create a flourishing Earth, in which all humans can attain full development: physically, cognitively, emotionally, socially, and spiritually, in a flourishing natural environment.

Because long hours at the workplace make it almost impossible to have time or energy for developing full human potential, the technology invented over the past two centuries should be used for providing the basic needs of all humans.

           A new worldview that corresponds with the actual conditions of the contemporary world is necessary: one that is holistic, based on perceiving the interdependence of all things, and understanding that the whole person needs to be cultivated if she or he is to attain complete development. Much of the whole person is not accessible to the restricted materialistic Modern worldview. For example, it does not recognize the quality of relationships, the countless influences that affect who we are, determining our life chances and even whether we are aware of certain aspects of our being. Much of our human potential lies in areas neglected by the materialistic Modern world. Perhaps a person has spiritual potential, or potential in regard to deep relationships with the world around them, through empathy or even telepathy or e.s.p. The possibilities are enormous, but our world, for the most part, values only material and ego-centered aspects of reality. Most people never reach their full potential because they have no idea of what their particular potential is, and our society has little interest in helping them discover and cultivate it. Basically all that matters is to fit smoothly into the material culture.

           A holistic worldview includes the realization that the world we live in is the result of our perception (rather than being a simple objective reality always the same for all). It includes perceiving the world beyond appearances, recognizing that all things that appear to be separate objects are actually inextricable from their context: their past and future, and all that has influenced them and that they influence. It includes understanding our motivations, and recognizing that these are not entirely a matter of personal choice but that healthy motivations are built into the fabric of the universe in which everything is affected by its total environment. We are not ‘selfish genes’ or ‘rugged individuals’.  The  so-called individual is entirely dependent on its context.  If the context is changed, or if the individual is removed from its context, it will be changed; perhaps it will not even be the same entity.

            To perceive the larger menu of possibilities requires the attainment of direct, unmediated perception of the world. In this way we overcome the incorrect understanding that results from relying on misleading sensory data, and from perceiving some aspects of the environment and not others (known as inattentional blindness). Perceiving clearly, without the distortions of sensory appearances and the mental habits based on them, requires perceiving the world without the filter of thought. This is because our thoughts repeat over and over the understanding of the world we have learned, and which has come to appear self-evident. We create our world through our repeated thoughts.

            Once we can prevent attention from being hijacked by uninvited thoughts, thought can be used for its proper purposes, such as planning and problem-solving. It will no longer be a running commentary we cannot turn off; and we will perceive the world without unconsciously turning it into concepts or interpretations of experience.

The time will come when a hundred million wise humans walk the flourishing Earth.

           It takes time to learn this key developmental task of self-control of the mind. It is more difficult than learning to walk upright or use symbolic language. This is why it has not been achieved before now. And because long hours at the workplace make it almost impossible to have time or energy for such mental training, the technology invented over the past two centuries should be used for providing the basic needs of all humans: safety and security, food, housing, health care, education and recreation, so that every human has time and energy for attaining his or her potential. The basics should be guaranteed to every human, and there should be full support, at every level of society and its institutions, for all of us to reach our full potential. There should not be great insecurity regarding whether we will have the things necessary for survival and basic well-being. The technology exists to see that all humans are so provided.

           The industrial work model developed over the past two centuries does not have to be an unchanging iron jacket that stays the same forever.

            The vision of the flourishing Earth is that no child in the world is left behind. All will be able to attain full physical, cognitive, emotional-social, and spiritual development in a flourishing natural environment. This vision of a flourishing Earth has not yet inspired enough people. But as more of us realize that this is not an unrealistic dream, but a reality that has been made possible by the technological and scientific advances of the past two centuries, more of us will demand that basic needs be met from the riches that have been created.

            This is a vision of flourishing that is available to everyone. It requires time and effort to achieve this developmental task, and that is why it is vital that our newly-found technological ability be used wisely – for the full human development of every human, in a flourishing natural environment.

            While I have said very little about the nonhuman creatures with whom we share the Earth, this is their world too. Humans have a responsibility to be good stewards of the planet. If we are not, we will create a heavy debt of guilt that will not go away no matter how much we ignore it. There is a moral law in the universe that cannot be ignored into nonexistence. Actions have results. The question is whether humans are aware enough to recognize those results – and are human enough to care.

            When a person realizes all the wonder, beauty, love, and opportunity that are available to us, she or he inevitably finds it hard to believe E could have wasted so much time in activities that provided none of these things. Many of the things most rewarding in life, such as relationships, awareness, creativity, spiritual beauty and love, have little to do with money. The time will come when a hundred million wise humans walk the flourishing Earth. The time to awaken them has arrived. The time for them to walk among us is now. With the aid of powers greater than human, humans will achieve their full potential. The task ahead is epochal, and will not be accomplished in a single lifetime. But the building of a flourishing Earth is the human destiny.

December 16, 2020

A Vision

Are humans capable of creating a flourishing Earth: a global community in which all people can flourish in a flourishing natural environment?

            We may endlessly dispute different versions of flourishing – which may be a good thing. But too often discussions of flourishing omit large parts of our nature. They are simply passed over as if they didn’t exist. It is not unreasonable to say that complete flourishing for humans includes wisdom, and that wisdom cannot exist without self-knowledge. Does self-knowledge include knowing that “Nothing human is alien to me”? Does it include knowing that we create ourselves, and our world, by our thoughts? Recognizing that the body is a transient, and minor aspect of our complete self?

            What is self-knowledge? Perhaps our complete self consists of the entire network of mutual influences of which the body is one result. If this is true, then while the body indeed dies, the body is only a part of who we are. We – you – are a multidimensional network of relations, awareness, energy, information, and matter. You are most definitely not an individual organism separate from whatever is not confined to the body.

        The great twentieth century philosopher-mathematician Alfred North Whitehead wrote that,
“The misconception which has haunted philosophic literature throughout the centuries is the notion of independent existence. There is no such mode of existence. Every entity is only to be understood in terms of the way in which it is interwoven with the rest of the universe.”[1]

Does self-knowledge rise to the level of wisdom if we share this misconception? If we never seriously ask ourselves whether the organism and its individual identity is all we are?

Albert Einstein wrote that,
“A human being is part of a whole, called by us the Universe, a part limited in time and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings, as something separated from the rest – a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest us. Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison.”[2]

And in a sermon given four days before his assassination, Martin Luther King, Jr., said, “We are tied together in a single garment of destiny, caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, and whatever affects one directly affects all indirectly. For some strange reason I can never be what I ought to be until you are all you are supposed to be. And you can never be what you ought to be until I am what I ought to be.”[3]

If this sort of self-knowledge does not form the core of our identity, are we wise?

            To know ourselves, it is necessary to perceive how we create our world through consciousness, selecting certain aspects of the universe to attend to, and ignoring the rest. Our world becomes bounded by the small part we are aware of, and we call this fragment reality. We do not seriously include the unknown part, although we may pay lip service to it.

            From this mind-created realm, over a period of millennia, the material world has arisen: the realm of the body and its external senses, the realm of separation, fear and desire, the realm of what we call birth and death.

            To flourish fully, it is important to become aware of actual reality beyond the mind-created portion. That requires perceiving the world beyond concepts, without compulsive inner speech, roiling emotions, and fantasies born of the material body. It requires waking up from inattentive, drowsy automatism. Finally, it requires turning the eye of awareness within, to that which is currently unconscious. To primary awareness. To do this the mind must be quiet, still, and aware.

            In the past two centuries, humans have revolutionized their exterior world. The time has come for them to revolutionize their inner world.­

            It should be a possibility for every human to flourish, in hir own unique way. In order to know what her or his unique way of flourishing is, each human  has to “know him- or herself”. Self-knowledge includes the ability to recognize how we are manipulated from external sources, as well as knowing our own motivations, and the ways in which our complete being goes beyond the boundaries of the organism. Gaining this level of self-knowledge requires time and education – particularly because the Self is not what it appears to be to the senses, to common sense reality, or to the consensus reality of global society.

            In the past, this level of self-knowledge has not been necessary for survival. But in a world that is ever-more thoroughly intertwined as a single system, to the point of “interbeing”, in Thich Nhat Hanh’s term, human survival depends on learning the ways in which the so-called individual is thoroughly intertwined with this system. We have learned that we are not independent individuals even within our family or any close group: the behavior of any member changes the other members of the group, and the nature of the group itself. And that is only one small aspect of our larger being. Another example, of thousands: our coffee drinking negatively affects the survival of animals, insects, and plants. This is the network of mutuality.

            It requires spending time for consciousness that is embodied to learn our complete identity and how to flourish fully as creatures existing in entwined interbeing with the world around us. It requires a great effort to learn the full extent of the inner world, and to perceive its messages.

            This is a possibility only if a person is assured of hir survival and security needs, such as food, shelter, and medical care. During the Period of Civilization, the great mass of the population were bound to the Earth, to the hard physical labor of producing adequate food for their society. Only a small part of the population could have the time and resources for education and development of their full potential.

            In the Industrial Revolution this age-old limitation to human potential was removed, for the first time in human existence. Through technology, humans discovered how to produce enough surplus so that every human could have the time and resources for discovering and developing hir full potential.

Industrialization…. became a revolutionary force by solving the oldest problem of humanity: scarcity.
Maury Klein,The Flowering of the Third America,1993, p. 12.

           Now the problem of distribution of those sufficient means must be resolved. Earth’s bounty is for all Earth’s children. It is unjust for a few to hold back those means, and thus hold back further maturation of the species for private benefit. If there are such things as oppression and injustice, then to prevent humans from their full development, when there is no justification for doing so, is oppression and injustice.

Those who wield power have a responsibility for their use of that power that not even Ignorance can remove. Nor can ignorance of the unforeseen consequences of our actions negate the ineluctable karma of their results. Actions have consequences, and those with the power to act in ways that affect the well-being of other creatures are responsible for the consequences of their actions.

         In any case, hundreds of millions of people already do have their survival and security needs met to an extent that allows them to attain their full potential and self-know­ledge. Here is a simple, although difficult, way to begin this journey:

         A quiet, attentive mind is essential for perceiving ourselves and the world without the distortion caused by turning experience into conceptualizations and thought. With a quiet, attentive mind, look within and find the place where proto-thought appears: perceptions, feelings, images, insights and intuitions. The primary messages of awareness, which are without words, whose source is not the practical, everyday, material world. Practice direct, unmediated, intuitive perception. Thought comes after awareness.

The zone game

A way to quiet the mind in 20 words: Take one breath that is thought-free. It doesn’t have to be perfect, just good enough. Then continue, observing what appears.

         The first stage of mastering this practice is to unclutter the mind of intrusive thoughts. The second stage is to tune in to what appears in an uncluttered mind. This form of mental training can be practiced as a game, or a sports activity.

During the first stage of practice, it may be helpful to count the number of thoughts that occur in a meditation session, or game. A game can be of any length from a single breath to several hours. Fifteen minutes may be a good length to begin with.

A way to quiet the mind: Take one breath that is thought-free. It doesn’t have to be perfect, just good enough. Then continue, observing what appears.

There are a variety of ways to count the number of thoughts. One that worked well for me was to use a set of prayer beads and advance one with every thought. Or, you can count up to one hundred on your fingers. At the end of each game, I recorded the number of thoughts that appeared as I sat trying to keep the mind free of thought. Keeping score made meditation a game, like golf, and motivated me to improve ability to focus and concentrate.

         In addition to recording the score, you can make a note on the quality of the meditation, and the challenges, mistakes you made, and things learned during the game. Keeping score is helpful in increasing motivation as you try to improve your ability to quiet the mind. It also provides accountability: by having to score a point for every thought, you are forced to pay closer attention to what was going on in the mind, and not allow yourself to slip insensibly into unmonitored drifting daydream, or say to yourself “Well, this thought is okay.”

         You are changing the default mental mode, from generally not paying attention to what the mind is doing, to becoming attentive to what it is doing at all times, and reminding it to be present always, free from intrusive thought. The zone game is practice in learning to concentrate and remain focused for a long time. The focus is on a particular Spot: the spot, or feeling, between where direct, unmediated awareness, and discursive thought occurs. Discursive thought is mental activity that “goes somewhere” – that has a beginning and continues. Direct, unmediated awareness is intuitive: it is a knowing that appears all at once.

“Union (or yoga) is restraining the thought-streams natural to the mind: Yogas chitta vritti nirodha. Yoga is the stilling of the mind until it rests in a state of total and utter tranquility, so that one experiences life as it is: as Reality.”[4]

“I think it can be said that the essential point of all the great spiritual disciplines that the world religions have evolved is the letting go of thoughts.”[5]

“Not to be able to stop thinking is a dreadful affliction, but we don’t realize this because almost everybody is suffering from it, so it is considered normal. This incessant mental noise prevents you from finding that realm of inner stillness that is inseparable from Being. It also creates a false mind-made self that casts a shadow of fear and suffering.”[6]

         To become a complete human being it is as necessary to control the weak and unsteady mind, to find freedom from the cage of compulsive thought, as it is to learn symbolic speech and to walk upright. And this mental ability is as superior to talking and walking as it is more difficult to accomplish.

         Our work is not done until we know the wellspring of thought and decipher the symbolic messages from this proto-thought realm – including those from the world of dreams. The language of primary awareness and its messages. This requires training a high level of empathy – and that the society actively values empathy and the quality of relationships.

         All things are communicating. Our work is not done until we learn the languages of all things, and their messages.

        The world of material possessions and pleasures is no more than the beginning, the first fruits of an awakening mind. There is so much more, treasure that cannot be bought. Humans are still just waking up. We are still at the threshold of true humanity, of becoming Homo sapiens.

We are all that has influenced us and all that we influence.We love our neighbor as our self because our neighbor is our self.

         Awareness is our birthright, free from manipulation from without or from within. Awareness well-trained, reaching the same level of skill as any Olympic athlete. Or is it easy to become a truly human being – a wise human? Not all of us can be Olympic athletes. But to flourish fully, all humans can go beyond the prison of thought to perceive the world directly and intuitively. Then thought can be used for its valuable, but quite limited proper purposes of making distinctions, operating with them, communicating those aspects of the universe that we have abstracted from the whole, and using them to create a flourishing Earth.

         Wisdom is to know one’s self. To know the complete Self is to perceive that the individual self, limited to the organism, is a fragment, a fictional abstraction useful for some purposes. Yo soy yo y mis circunstancias: I am the organism plus my context. We love our neighbor as our self because our neighbor is our self. We are our awareness – and also all that influences us of which we are not aware. From the Beginning, the cosmos has toiled to increase awareness. Now it is time for humans to pay the debt we owe for the miracle of life and self-awareness, by flourishing as a member of a flourishing world system that is our true self.

– Richard Hawley Trowbridge, PhD
Editor, The Flourishing Earth
December 16, 2020

[1] Alfred North Whitehead, Essays in Science and Philosophy. New York: Rider and Company, 1948. p. 64.

[2] Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions. Trans. by Sonja Bargmann, New York: Crown Publishers, 1954, p. 203.

[3] Martin Luther King, Jr., sermon delivered March 31, 1968, in A Testament of Hope, New York: HarperCollins, 1991, p. 269.

[4] Aimee Hughes | August 21, 2019, “Yogas Chitta Vritti Nirodha: Patanjali’s Definition of Yoga, Explained”.

[5] Thomas Keating. 2002. Open Mind, Open Heart. In Foundations for Centering Prayer and the Christian Contemplative Life. New York: ContinuumInternational Publishing Group. [Originally published 1986], p. 76.

[6] Eckhart Tolle. 2004. The Power of Now. Vancouver, B.C., Canada: Namaste Publishing, and Novato, CA.: New World Library, [originally published 1999], pp. 14-15.